Final Anfal: Attack on Bahdinan

There were eight stages to the 1988 Anfal campaign. The final stage was launched on 25 August 1988 and targeted Kurdistan’s Bahdinan region just south of the Turkish border. The Iraqi army used poison gas against the villages there as well as tanks and heavy artillery.

Life and Death in Dibs Prison

Families were separated in Topzawa, and women and children were transferred to Dibs, near Kirkuk. The conditions in Dibs were harsh and many children died of typhoid.

‘Welcome to Hell’: the Desert Prison Nugra Salman

Nugra Salman was a notorious prison camp in the southern Iraqi deserts where Kurdish villagers were held under particularly brutal conditions. In these film clips, survivors share their stories of incarceration.

Exodus from the Kurdish Heartlands

In 1988 tens of thousands of Kurds fled Anfal towards Iran and Turkey. This was the first mass exodus of Kurds escaping massive chemical attacks. After the collapse of the Kurdish uprising in Iraq in 1991, an estimated 1.5 million people ran away from a vengeful Iraqi army.


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